There are four major political belief systems.
Liberalism is a political system described as the left wing of politics. Liberals believe in big government, high taxes to pay for social programs, and open borders. Liberals generally support gun control, the separation of church and state, and same-sex marriage. Liberals generally see the U.S. Constitution as a living document that should change with the times. Liberals generally do not support strict punishment for criminals. They believe that criminals are the product of a failure of society to care for people. Today's liberals generally believe that Socialism is a better economic system than Capitalism, because Socialism is regulated by government. Liberals believe that government can fix the problems of society.
Conservatism is a political system described as the right wing of politics. Conservatives believe in limited government, low taxes to keep more money in the hands of those who earned it, and the protection of national borders. Conservatives support the Second Amendment, the right for law-abiding citizens to own and carry a gun, and in general, the entire U.S. Constitution. Conservatives believe, as history supports, that America was founded upon the principles of Judaeo-Christian values which ultimately came from the Bible. Conservatives believe in the sanctity of marriage between a man and a woman. To allow any other type of union as equal devalues the sanctity of marriage. Conservatives believe in personal freedom to pursue life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Not everyone is either Liberal or Conservative. Many people are in the middle of the road, not holding tight to either Liberalism or Conservatism. These people are called independents. Independents may be the most important voting block. In general, Liberals are going to vote for Democrats and Conservatives are going to vote for Republicans. Most Independents look at either the personality of the candidate or where the candidate stands on certain policies. Unfortunately, some people vote for a candidate because of their race or gender. This is terrible reason to vote for a candidate. We should always look at where they stand on the issues.
Libertarians believe in very limited government and a lot of individual freedom. Libertarians believe in decriminalizing drugs as they believe in as little government control as possible.